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Ukusebenzisa i-Artificial Intelligence Kwezentuthuko: Ukufaka Izindimi Zase-Afrika

By Min’enhle Ncube

Kujwayelekile ukuthi sihugeke ngobuchwephetshi babomakhalekhukhwini okwesikhathi eside. Ungabe uthumela umbiko, uphequlula inkundla yezokuxhumana, ubukela ezokuzilibazisa, loba ufunda izindaba. Kusobala ukuthi ubuchwephetshi sebuyingxenye yempilo zethu.

Phakathi kwalokho, asinanzi imitshina yamafoni ekhokhela izinhlelo zethu esithembele kuzo ekwenzeni imisebenzi. Lamhla ngizachaza i-Artificial Intelligence, eyaziwa langokuthi yi-AI, elihlandla yalemitshina, ongumqondo kanye lomutsho ongajwayelekanga ukuchazwa ngolimi lwesiNdebele.

Kujwayelekile ukuxoxa ngalesi sihloko ngezindimi zaphetsheya, yikho ke ngithanda ukumema abaqeqetshi bolimi lwesiNdebele. Yona i-AI isetshenziswa ngezinga elingakaze libonwe emikhakheni eminengi, njengokunakekelwa kwezempilo, ucwaningo lwe-biomedical kanye lokusebenza kogatsha lwezempilo, ukwelapha abantwana, loba ukugcina abantu abadala.

Lanxa i-AI ithuthuke ngale ndlela, ulwazi, imfundo kanye lezakhiwo ze-AI zidinga ukumelwa zindimi ze-Afrika; ngokunengi i-AI ichazwa ngabeNtshonalanga, phecelezi igxile ukusekela impilo yeNtshonalanga. Okokuqala, kuqakathekile ukuzwisisa i-AI lezizathu zokuhlanganisa izindimi ezibandlululiweyo ukuze sandise ulwazi lomuzwa we-AI.

I-Intelligence kumbe ‘ukukhalipha’ kuchazwa njengekhono lomuntu, ukubona lokuzwisisa indawo akuyo, ukuthola ulwazi langokulusebenzisa ngendlela efaneleyo. Mayelana lemitshina, nxa umsebenzi wengqondo yomuntu wenziwa ngumtshina, ubuchwephetshi lobu bubizwa nge-Artificial Intelligence. U-artificial uchaza ukwenziwa ngumuntu, okungasikwemvelo.

Lowo mkhakha wasungulwa ngomnyaka ka1956 elizweni leMelika, ngenhloso yokwakha ithuluzi kumbe imitshina yokuxazulula izinkinga ezehlukeneyo ezifana lezempilakahle, ezomnontho welizwe, ekuvikeleni ubusela, ukukhanda izimota ezihamba zodwa loba ukuloba indaba ngamagama aqondileyo. Lesi sifundo se-AI besigxile esifundweni sesayensi yamakhompiyutha (computer science), kodwa ngokuhamba kweminyaka, ezinye izifundo ezinjengeZobuntu (Humanities) zifaka isandla ekuthuthukisweni kwaso.

Ngesibonelo esisodwa, eZobuntu zigcizelela ukubaluleka kokufaka izindimi ebuchwephetsheni. Ukuqina kwendimi kulelizinga kutsho ukuthi izindimi ebezincitshwe amathuba, ezifana lezase-Afrika zicina ulwazi lwe-AI lulomkhawulo. Khathesi, i-AI ngokuyinhloko ethuthukiswe futhi ecwaningwa eNtshonalanga, ngaphandle kwezwekazi lase-Afrika. Lokhu kucina kubeka i-AI engozini yokuhlukumeza, futhi njalo icindezela ukujula lokuthuthukiswa kolwazi lwe-AI empilweni zabantu be-Afrika. Phakathi kwalolubandlululo, sidinga abachwephetshi abavela kulo lonke zwekazi bancedisane ekuthuthukisweni kwe-AI.

Ake ngichaze ukuqakatheka kokufaka ezinye izindimi lamasiko. Eminyakeni embalwa edlulileyo, kube lempikiswano emayelana lobandlululo lwe-AI, eyayinganaki abantu abamnyama – kungabe kusebhanga (bank) ekuqapheni kwamapholisa, ekuphiweni kwabomazisi lama pasipoti, ekugadeni kwendizamtshina kumbe ukukhetha ubinikazi bezindlu.

Leli qoqo lomsebenzi elisebenzisa izithombe zabantu kumbe izigxivizo zeminwe libizwa nge-Biometrics – isifundo esisebenzisa izibalo kumbe amanombolo ukuze zihlaziye idatha (data) yebhayoloji (biology). Nxa leyo datha ilinganiselwe ebantwini abalebala elikhanyayo loba abamhlophe, kutsho ukuthi i-AI yomtshina izwisisa abantu abamnyama kafitshane.

Ngokufananayo, ukukhawula kwezindimi kuleyomitshina kutsho ukuthi kakusayenelisi ukusekela amasiko ethu. Kungabangcono ukwakha imtshina ehlanganisa izindimi ezandileyo – ngoba bathi sigoqwa sisesemanzi isigogo – ukuze ubuchwephetshi bungasibandlululi esikhathini esizayo.

Ngithanda ukukhangelisisa njalo ugwalo oluthi Languages in Africa, olwahlelwa ngu-Elizabeth Sziga labakwabo ngo-2014, oluchaza izendlalelo zolimi. Emiphakathini eminengi yase-Afrika, ulimi lokuzalwa lungabasengozini enkulu nxa lusetshenziswa eqenjini elincane kuphela. Umphakathi ubunjwa ngolimi lwezwe olusetshenziswa kakhulu futhi lukhulunywa linengi kulelo lizwe. Izibonelo zigoqela isiSwahili eKenya le Tanzania kanye lesiTswana eBotswana – ezilemibhalo lemithombo yezindaba.

Ulimi lwesizwe lungasekelwa ngezinye indimi ezifana lesiLungu, lesiFulentshi, zona ezizindimi ezisetshenziswa ekufundiseni. Lezi zindimi zibazindlela zokwakha ezomnotho ziphinde zifakwe enhlelweni zemvelo lomhlaba wonke. Kodwa, balutshwane abangazwisisa kuhle lezi zindimi. Ngingagcizelela ukuqakatheka kwendimi zase-Afrika, kodwa kuqakathekile futhi sazi ukufa kwazo. Kuya ngokwanda, izindimi zivinjelwe, zisetshenziswa kuphela emasikweni loba ebantwini abadala. Kodwa-ke, indimi zase-Afrika zisalawo amathuba okugcizelela ezinhlelweni zomnotho wolimi lwethu ezatshiyelelwa zindimi zobuKoloni ezifana lesiFulentshi lesiLungu.

Sekukonke, izindimi zethu azivezwanga kuhle emphakathini wezindaba zamazwe ngamazwe, futhi lokhu sikubona kumafilimu aseHollywood lapho izindimi ezinjalo zihlukunyezwa loba zifihlwa kulokuthi ziveze ukubaluleka kwamasiko azo; izindimi zethu akumelanga zifananiswe lesiphithiphithi. Ingxenye yaloludaba luvela kuhulumende wezemfundo, engaqiniswanga ukuze kuphiliswe izindimi okwesikhathi eside.

Abafundi yikho ke befuqelwa kakhulu ekukhulumeni isiLungu kulezinye izindimi. Okuhle yikuthi kulamaqembu emphakathini athatha inyathelo lokulondoloza lokuthuthukisa ulimi lwazo. Enye nguMasakhane, iqembu le-AI yomthombo ovulekele izwenikazi lonke. Lelo hlelo lulenhloso yokuthuthukisa ulwazi lwe-AI ngokusebenzisana lezindimi zase-Afrika, lokuveza lezozindimi emhlabeni.

Ifilosofi (philosophy) yabo ithi iNguquko Yezimboni Yesine (4th Industrial Revolution) e-Afrika akumelanga isungululwe ngesiLungu kuphela. Kodwa, leyo misebenzi yedijithali (digital) yandiswa kakhulukazi ngesiLungu kumbe ngezinye izindimi zeNtshonalanga. Kulezinye izibonelo zemiphakathi ezakha inhlangano ekhangelane lezinkinga ezifana lokuhumutsha, ngosizo lwabaqeqetshi bezindimi ukuze zime kangcono. I-Botswana ilohlelo lokuvuselela iNaro, isiKalanga kanye loShayeyi. Lumsebenzi ugoqela ukubhala lezizindimi ngezinto zokufundisa abantwana kanye labantu abadala, kodwa le mizamo ayizange ihlaziywe esidlangalaleni. Ngakho-ke, isandla sikahulumende siqakathekile ukuze kuthuthukiswe izinqubomgomo ezisekela amagugu olimi.

Njengoba kuveziwe sobala yile ndatshana, kulokuswelakala kwamazwi esayensi awesiNdebele okudingakala ukwandisa imicabango yokuxhumanisa ulimi lwethu ezifundweni zesayensi. Kodwa-ke, okwakhathesi amathuluzi amanengi edijithali lemphatho axhumayo emhlabeni wonke atholakala kakhulukazi ngesiLungu, loba ngezinye izindimi zaseNtshonalanga. I-Afrika likhaya lezigidi zabantu abakhuluma isiLungu, isiFulentshi, isiPuthukezi, lezinkulungwane zezinye izindimi. Kodwa lezozindimi zingaphandle kwedijithali loba amathuba ekhona ekufakweni kwazo.

Bio:

uMin’enhle Ncube uqeqetsha izifundo eziphezulu ze-anthropology zobuDokotela endlini Yemfundo Zobuntu (Institute for the Humanities in Africa), eYunivesithi Yasekapa (University of Cape Town). Ucwaningo lwakhe lugxile ku-Artificial Intelligence ehlotshaniswa ngezempilakahle eZambiya. Ulentshisekelo yokufakwa kwemiphakathi ebandluliweyo kwezobuchwephetshi.

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